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Kinkajou Profile Kinkajou : Introducing the Photon: The subatomic particle that carries the electromagnetic force and is the quantum of electromagnetic radiation, including electromagnetic radiation such as light and radio waves, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force .

Erasmus Profile Erasmus : A photon carries energy proportional to the radiation frequency. The photon has a rest mass of zero, but has measurable momentum, exhibits deflection by a gravitational field, and can exert an (electromagnetic) force. (attraction or repulsion).

The scientist Michael Faraday discovered the electromagnetic nature of light when he found that polarised light became rotated when travelling along magnetic field.
He proposed that light was a high frequency electromagnetic vibration which could propagate even in the absence of medium such as the “ether”. This is essentially what we believe today.

Michael FaradayMichael Faraday

The concept of the “ether” became discredited for many years but we now seem to have resurrected the Higgs Field in relation to the Higgs Boson.
A strange circuitous journey of logic indeed.

Kinkajou Profile Kinkajou : What are the characteristics of a Photon?

Erasmus Profile Erasmus :
Spin: 1
Symbol: Gamma
Mean lifetime: Stable
C parity: -1
Parity: -1
Composition: Elementary particle
Interactions: Electromagnetic, Weak Force, Gravity

Kinkajou Profile Kinkajou : Tell us More about the Photon
Erasmus Profile Erasmus : The photon is a type of elementary particle. Hence as elementary particles Photons are not thought to be made up of smaller particles.

Photons are massless, and they always move at the speed of light in vacuum, 299792458 m/s.   (See our previous statement re relativistic mass and rest mass)

Sometimes people like to say that the photon does have mass because a photon has energy E = hf where h is Planck's constant and f is the frequency of the photon. However- this description is a Physicists’ convention of word usage. It is true within the tight definition of the proper usage of the words, not perhaps as most of us understand the interconvertability of mass and energy.

Colours that can be produced by visible light of a narrow band of wavelengths (monochromatic light) are called pure spectral colours. The various colour ranges indicated in the illustration are an approximation: The spectrum is continuous, with no clear boundaries between one colour and the next.



Light Spectrum

Colour / Wavelength / Frequency / Photon energy
Violet 380–450 nm 670–790 THz 2.75–3.26 eV
Blue 450–485 nm 620–670 THz 2.56–2.75 eV
Cyan 485–500 nm 600–620 THz 2.48–2.56 eV
Green 500–565 nm 530–600 THz 2.19–2.48 eV
Yellow 565–590 nm 510–530 THz 2.10–2.19 eV
Orange 590–625 nm 480–510 THz 1.98–2.10 eV
Red 625–740 nm 405–480 THz 1.68–1.98 eV

Kinkajou Profile Kinkajou : The Hydrogen line is a critically important fact which we will talk about on our other sites.

The hydrogen line, 21-centimeter line, or H I line is the electromagnetic radiation spectral line that is created by a change in the energy state of neutral hydrogen atoms.
This electromagnetic radiation has a precise frequency of 1420405751.768(2) Hz, which is equivalent to the vacuum wavelength of 21.106114054160(30) cm in free space.

This wavelength falls below the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum, which begins at 3.0 GHz (10cm wavelength), and it is observed frequently in radio astronomy because those radio waves can penetrate the large clouds of interstellar cosmic dust that are opaque to visible light.


Erasmus Profile Erasmus : The microwaves of the hydrogen line come from the atomic transition of an electron between the two hyperfine levels of the hydrogen 1 s ground state that have an energy difference of 5.8743261841116(81) Micro-eV [9.411708152678(13)×10E-25 J].
It is called the spin-flip transition.


Photon Structure


Erasmus Profile Erasmus : The energy of the transition is not a valence transition but a transition between spin up and spin down states of the electron.

The frequency, f, of the quanta that are emitted by this transition between two different energy levels is given by the Planck–Einstein relation E = hf. According to that relation, the photon energy of a photon with a frequency of 1420405751.768(2) Hz is 5.8743261841116(81) ?eV [9.411708152678(13)×10E-25 J]. The constant of proportionality, h, is known as the Planck constant.